SCI论文全攻略之构思与撰文(二)

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撰写论文初稿(writing the first draft):

 

(1)材料和方法(methods and materials):做了什么和怎样做?材料和方法是文章开始写作的最理想部分,这部分的内容作者最了解。写作要求:用过去时,尽可能按实验的先后顺序描述。

 

(2)结果(results):发生了什么?基本写作要求:可用图、表或文字表达,三者间尽量减少重复。在正文部分叙述主要结果和意义,用图或表给出较详细的数据,用过去时。

 

(3)讨论(discussion):所得结果是否为“前言”提出的关键问题的答案?结果是如何支持答案的、如何证实假说的?基本写作要求:集中讨论与本结果有关的问题,突出本研究的创新及重要性,;与相关研究结果进行比较分析;给出结果所支持的结论;指出前景、不足和改进。用现在时叙述已知或被证明的事实,用过去时描述本研究结果。

 

(4)文献(references):与本研究方法、结果、讨论有关的其它研究有哪些?准确完整规范著录。

 

(5)前言(introduction)本研究的背景和目的是什么?试图回答的关键问题是什么?基本写作要求:本研究之目的和重要性;简要复习文献。

 

(6)致谢(acknowledgment)除了作者,谁协助完成了本研究、分析结果并撰写论文?谁提供了基金和物质帮助?写作要求:仅列出对本工作提供特殊的实质性贡献者姓名;须得到被致谢者同意。

 

(7)摘要(abstract):论文告诉我们什么(通常<250字)?摘要是论文要点的浓缩,应在文章各主要部分完成后再写,这样有利于文章要点的提炼。优秀的摘要能有效抓住读者兴趣。写作要求:用含有必要词汇的短的简单句,以使摘要清楚而简洁?避免使用缩写词和晦涩难懂的词句;用小标题叙述研究论文的各部分;用过去时(但问题的陈述和结论可用现在时);强调研究的创新和重要方面。

 

(8)文题(title):本文关于什么?最佳文题的标准是用最少的必要术语准确描述论文的内容。写作要求:准确(accuracy)、简洁(brevity)、有效(effectiveness)和吸引人。

 

(9)作者(author list):谁参与了本研究的设计、工作及论文的撰写?

 

(10)准备论文最后一稿(preparing the final manuscript):论文初稿完成以后,必须对内容及格式进行反复推敲和修改,达到“投稿须知”的一切要求。绝大多数有经验的编辑都认为:不认真准备的稿件绝不是高水平科学研究成果的良好载体(A poorly prepared manuscript is,almost without fail,the carrier vehicle of poor science. Day AR.)。

如果希望论文发表,在准备投稿时必须做到打字整洁、无错、符合期刊格式、含有期刊要求的所有材料。该过程一般分三步:再次阅读拟投期刊的“投稿须知”;用“投稿须知”中提供的“稿件对照检查表”(manuscript checklist, author’s checklist)与自己论文一一核对;根据期刊要求打印输出,完成最后一稿。

 

6

英语学术论文写作的几个细节

 

A. 时态:当提到本文、此图、此表等说明了、表达了什么时要用一般现在时,而不用一般过去时。This paper describes ……The focus of this paper is ……Figure 1 shows ……Most of the common condensation polymers are listed in Table 1-1.

 

B. 数:在学术论文里,有时很难顾及数的逻辑。但一般不将逻辑上的问题视为语法错误。只须注意在一个句子中的数和谓语动词的统一即可。单、复数的选用有一些非定性、但可供参考的趋向:

 

◆◆当含意上强调复数时建议用复数。The catalyst concentrations for the different reactions are different.Our research focuses on the syntheses and characterizations of a series of polycarbonates with different chemical structures.The physical and chemical properties of this compound have been studied.The chain lengths of the oligomers with different molecular weights are different.

 

◆◆当含意上不强调复数时可用单数或复数。Our research focuses on the synthesis of polycarbonates.The property of the compounds in group 1 is different from the property of the compounds in group 2.The chain length of the oligomers increases with increasing reaction time.

 

◆◆在标题、小标题中或描述一类事物、现象等,提到具体物质时常用复数。【Polyesters】Polymers are macromolecules built up by large numbers of small molecules. The small molecules which combine with each other to form polymer molecules are termed monomers.在标题、小标题或描述一类事物、现象等,提到抽象概念时可用单数、也可用复数。【Step Copolymerization】Newer Types of Step Polymerizations. This chapter will consider the characteristics of step polymerization in detail.

 

◆◆学术论文、有关学术的科普文章中的名词的可数或不可数特性的划分区别于非学术文章《非学术文章中的可数或不可数特性可从字典查到》。以下是在学术文章中通常视为可数名词的单词:《但在一般字典中它们或它们做某种含义解时可能被划归不可数名词》。

 

application     development     consideration

 

composition     concentration     distribution

 

structure     length       weight

 

◆◆当同时提及几个图、表、方程式时要用复数(分别单个地提及则不用):The reaction rate constant can be calculated from Equations 2 and 3. The reaction rate constant can be calculated from Equation 2 and Equation 3. Figs. 4 and 5 show ……

 

C. 冠词:

 

◆◆单数名词前一般要加冠词:a , the等; 但以下情况可不加:表示不特指的、较抽象的概念:

 

This chapter will consider the characteristics of step polymerization in detail. An understanding of the relative ease of cyclization or linear polymerization comes from a variety of sources.Different polymers are synthesized to yield various mechanical behaviors by the appropriate combinations of crystallinity, crosslinking, Tg, and Tm..但需注意这些单词前加冠词也是经常见到的,这是由它在句中的含义决定的(如有一定的特指意义):Polyisoprene is a typical elastomer – it is amorphous, easily crossed, has a low Tg (-73°C) and a high Tm (14°C).

 

◆◆目录、标题中通常省略冠词:

 

1     Introduction

 

1-1     Types of Polymers and Polymerizations

 

 

1-4 Molecular Weight

 

1-5 Physical State

 

图、表的题目中有时可省略冠词:Fig. 2-2 Second order plot of the self-catalyzed polyesterification of adipic acid with diethylene glycol at 166 °C.……Fig. 8 Dependence of the ease of cyclization on the size of the ring.化学药品、化学物质前通常不加冠词:The polymerization is catalyzed by protonic or lewis acids although a wide variety of base catalysts such as calcium acetate and antimony trioxide can also be used.图中的横、纵坐标的名称前不加冠词。

 

D. 大小写:请注意以下结构的大、小写:当提及具体第几章、节;图、表;方程式时,首个字母通常要大写。As discussed in Chapter 2, ……In Section 1.2, we ……As shown in Figure 1, ……The results are listed in Table 3.当不指明是第几章、节;图、表;方程式时,首个字母如在句中通常用小写。In the previous chapter, ……As shown in this figure, ……

 

E. 缩写:以下全名和缩写在文中通常视为同等,可以互换。

 

Figure     Fig.     Figures       Figs.

 

Table       Tab.

 

Chapter     Chap.

 

Section     Sec.

 

Equation     Eq.     Equations     Eqs.

 

F. 一些常用词汇用法

 

◆◆research, study, investigate:research可做名词、动词,但通常做名词用,很少见到动词的用法。句中需要动词时常用study或investigate来表达。

 

◆◆detail/detailed:The properties of this compound were studied in detail.//The detailed properties of this compound were studied.//The details of the properties of this compound were studied.

 

◆◆follows/following:The results are as follows: ……//We got following results: ……

 

◆◆increase, decrease:均可做名词和动词,We can observe an increase in the reaction rate.//The reaction rate increases.

 

◆◆focus, concentrate:focus: n. , v. The focus of this paper is ……This paper focuses on ……Our study focuses on ……We focus our study on ……Our study is focused on ……concentrate: v. We concentrate our study on ……Our study is concentrated on ……

 

◆◆effect, affect:effect: n. //affect: v.

 

◆◆compose, consist:A is composed of B and C.//A consists of B and C.

 

◆◆increase, improve:increase: 主要指数值上的增加。improve: 主要指性质的增加、改善。

 

G. 名词修饰:在学术文章中,很多时候会用到直接用名词做修饰,而不用‘s 或 …… of …… 的形式。常见的这类词有:reaction rate;reaction rate constant;reaction temperature;reaction condition

 

molecular weight distribution……

 

H. 分词修饰:the reaction we studied;the temperature used;the nonlinearity observed。所有格:非人的所有格用……of……, 而不用……’s 。

(来源:桂耀荣科学网博客)

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