“The point is who takes the initiative, i.e., we modulateour microbes or they make us who we are.”- Juan Carlos Espín, guest editor of this Special Issue
Probiotics, gut microbiota, and their influence on host health and disease
Borja Sánchez, Susana Delgado, Aitor Blanco-Míguez, Anália Lourenço, Miguel Gueimonde and Abelardo Margolles
Probiotics exert health benefits on the host through interaction with specific components of the host (mostly epithelial and immune cells), notably at the mucosa level, involving different mechanisms of action and biological effects
Cardiometabolic risk and gut microbial phytoestrogen metabolite phenotypes
Cara L. Frankenfeld
Dietary phytoestrogens are found in plants and have several biological activities that may be relevant to human health, including activities that are associated with cardiometabolic risk factors. These compounds are metabolized by gut bacteria to other compounds, which then have their own biological activities. This paper reviews the evidence regarding the role of phytoestrogen metabolism for cardiometabolic risk factors.